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301 Personality disorders

          Deeply ingrained maladaptive patterns of behavior generally recognizable by
          the time of adolescence or earlier and continuing throughout most of adult
          life, although often becoming less obvious in middle or old age. The
          personality is abnormal either in the balance of components, their quality and
          expression or in its total aspect. Because of this deviation or psychopathy
          the patient suffers or others have to suffer and there is an adverse effect
          upon the individual or on society. It includes what is sometimes called
          psychopathic personality, but if this is determined primarily by
          malfunctioning of the brain, it should not be classified here but as one of
          the nonpsychotic organic brain syndromes (310). When the patient exhibits an
          anomaly of personality directly related to his neurosis or psychosis, e.g.,
          schizoid personality and schizophrenia or anankastic personality and obsessive
          compulsive neurosis, the relevant neurosis or psychosis which is in evidence
          should be diagnosed in addition.
          Character neurosis

301.0 Paranoid personality disorder

          Personality disorder in which there is excessive sensitiveness to setbacks or
          to what are taken to be humiliations and rebuffs, a tendency to distort
          experience by misconstruing the neutral or friendly actions of others as
          hostile or contemptuous, and a combative and tenacious sense of personal
          rights. There may be a proneness to jealousy or excessive self-importance.
          Such persons may feel helplessly humiliated and put upon; others, likewise
          excessively sensitive, are aggressive and insistent. In all cases there is
          excessive self-reference.
          Fanatic personality Paranoid traits
          Paranoid personality (disorder)
          Excludes: acute paranoid reaction (298.3)
           alcoholic paranoia (291.5)
           paranoid schizophrenia (295.3)
           paranoid states (297.-)

301.1 Affective personality disorder

          Personality disorder characterized by lifelong predominance of a pronounced
          mood which may be persistently depressive, persistently elated, or alternately
          one then the other. During periods of elation there is unshakeable optimism
          and an enhanced zest for life and activity, whereas periods of depression are
          marked by worry, pessimism, low output of energy and a sense of futility.
          Cycloid personality Depressive personality
          Cyclothymic personality
          Excludes: affective psychoses (296.-)
           neurasthenia (300.5)
           neurotic depression (300.4)

301.2 Schizoid personality disorder

          Personality disorder in which there is withdrawal from
          affectional, social and other contacts with autistic
          preference for fantasy and introspective reserve. Behavior
          may be slightly eccentric or indicate avoidance of
          competitive situations. Apparent coolness and detachment may
          mask an incapacity to express feeling.
          Excludes: schizophrenia (295.-)

301.3 Explosive personality disorder

          Personality disorder characterized by instability of mood with liability to
          intemperate outbursts of anger, hate, violence or affection. Aggression may
          be expressed in words or in physical violence. The outbursts cannot readily
          be controlled by the affected persons, who are not otherwise prone to
          antisocial behavior.
          Aggressive: Emotional instability
           personality (excessive)
           reaction Pathological emotionality
          Aggressiveness Quarrelsomeness
          Excludes: dyssocial personality (301.7)
           hysterical neurosis (300.1)

301.4 Anankastic personality disorder

          Personality disorder characterized by feelings of personal insecurity, doubt
          and incompleteness leading to excessive conscientiousness, checking,
          stubbornness and caution. There may be insistent and unwelcome thoughts or
          impulses which do not attain the severity of an obsessional neurosis. There
          is perfectionism and meticulous accuracy and a need to check repeatedly in an
          attempt to ensure this. Rigidity and excessive doubt may be conspicuous.
          Compulsive personality Obsessional personality
          Excludes: obsessive-compulsive disorder (300.3)
           phobic state (300.2)

301.5 Hysterical personality disorder

          Personality disorder characterized by shallow, labile affectivity, dependence
          on others, craving for appreciation and attention, suggestibility and
          theatricality. There is often sexual immaturity, e.g., frigidity and over-
          responsiveness to stimuli. Under stress hysterical symptoms [neurosis] may
          Psychoinfantile personality Histrionic personality
          Excludes: hysterical neurosis (300.1)

301.6 Asthenic personality disorder

          Personality disorder characterized by passive compliance with the wishes of
          elders and others and a weak inadequate response to the demands of daily life.
          Lack of vigor may show itself in the intellectual or emotional spheres; there
          is little capacity for enjoyment.
          Dependent personality Passive personality
          Inadequate personality
          Excludes: neurasthenia (300.5)

301.7 Personality disorder with predominantly sociopathic or asocial

          Personality disorder characterized by disregard for social obligations, lack
          of feeling for others, and impetuous violence or callous unconcern. There is
          a gross disparity between behavior and the prevailing social norms.
          Behavior is not readily modifiable by experience, including punishment.
          People with this personality are often affectively cold and may be abnormally
          aggressive or irresponsible. Their tolerance to frustration is low; they
          blame others or offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior which
          brings them into conflict with society.
          Amoral personality
          Asocial personality
          Antisocial personality
          Excludes: disturbance of conduct without specifiable personality disorder
           explosive personality (301.3)

301.8 Other personality disorders

           "haltlose" type
          Excludes: psychoinfantile personality (301.5)

301.9 Unspecified

          Pathological personality NOS Psychopathic:
          Personality disorder NOS constitutional state
           personality (disorder)
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